Tuesday, January 26, 2021

Victorian Britain and Ireland - Sources from Special Collections

 22 January 2021 marked the 120th anniversary of the death of Queen Victoria. The Library has many resources which our readers can use to find out more about life in the Victorian era in Ireland, Britain and around the world. The broad-ranging Cambridge Companion to Victorian culture could be a good starting point. It is available online through the library catalogue.

Some details of the lives of all classes of society can be gleaned from the census returns, taken every 10 years between 1841 and 1901, spanning almost the whole of Queen Victoria’s reign. The Find My Past database, to which the library subscribes, provides access to images and transcriptions of all of these census returns for England, Scotland and Wales. Unfortunately, only the 1901 Census returns for Ireland survive.

Here we see an image of the return for Queen Victoria’s own family from the 1851 census in which Prince Albert is recorded as the head of the household. The census records the ages, occupations, and birthplaces of those resident in each household on census night and can bring alive the nature of family and domestic living at the time.

The extremes of poverty and wealth which characterised the Victorian era are illustrated very vividly in the many government reports published throughout the period. As Ireland was ruled from Westminster at the time many of these include contemporary descriptions of Ireland. Our picture shows the title page of the report into Poor Relief in Ireland in 1886. This and many other commissions travelled around the country taking statements from witnesses. Our second picture shows the names of witnesses who gave evidence to the Commission when it sat at Swineford, County Mayo, on Friday 3 December 1886. Interestingly, the list includes some women. Female voices, especially those who were poor, are infrequently heard in the official record of the day. Their testimony provides stark evidence of how little people had in the West of Ireland at the time.

This and many other parliamentary reports can be accessed through the House of Commons parliamentary papers database on the library catalogue.

By contrast, our Dominican Collection contains a photographic album which sheds light on the lives of landowning families in Scotland at the end of the 19th century. Sr. Louis (Ina) Baird joined the convent in Taylor’s Hill in 1912. These albums belonged to her and illustrate the privileged background in which she had been raised, depicting the country house in Knoydart, where she had been born, as well as images from the family’s extensive travels.

The Victorian era was also a period of new building, not least on our own campus, where the Quadrangle building was begun in 1845 and completed by 1850. A small but highly evocative tangible link to the period for us is the post box just outside the main entrance on University Road. It is characterised by the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage as of regional importance, having been installed around 1860, and, of course, remains in use.

The Library provides access to several other databases which amplify and contextualise Queen Victoria’s reign with all of its contradictions and offer opportunities for primary source research on a whole range of topics. Among these databases would be Dublin Castle Records, Empire Online, the 19th Century Index, British Periodicals and the British Library Newspapers collection. All of these can be accessed through the library catalogue.

Thursday, December 17, 2020

An ceathrú tráinse d’ábhar Chonradh na Gaeilge eisithe.


Bliain dheacair agus aisteach ab ea an bhliain 2020 mar gheall ar phaindéaim Covid-19, agus cuireadh isteach go mór ar an ngnáthshaol. Ní haon ionadh é a rá, ar an drochuair, gur cuireadh isteach ar an obair leanúnach phróiseála ar bhailiúchán Chonradh na Gaeilge. Níorbh fhéidir rochtain a fháil ar na cartlanna ar feadh thréimhse 7 mí chun leanúint leis an obair dhúshlánach chatalógaithe.

Fuarthas rochtain arís ó mhí Lúnasa go Deaireadh Fómhair na bliana seo agus tá áthas orm a bheith in ann thuairisciú go bhfuil an chéad tráinse eile d'ábhar eisithe. Cúig sraith atá i gceist leis an tráinse seo: G60/3 Coistí; G60/13 Ard Fheis; G60/15 Seachtain na Gaeilge; G60/19 Nua-Litríocht, Filíocht agus Scríbhneoirí na Gaeilge agus G60/21 Ábhar a bhaineann le Ceol, Amhráin agus Rince.

Baineann sraith na gCoistí le hobair coistí agus fochoistí éagsúla de chuid Chonradh na Gaeilge agus áirítear léi an Coiste Gnó; an Coiste Airgid; Coiste na bPáistí; Coiste na Féile; an Coiste Um Bhailiú Airgid; an Fochoiste Oideachais; an Fochoiste Gaeltachta; an Fochoiste Oiliúna agus na Fochoistí Craolacháin agus Meán, agus is miontuairiscí agus comhfhreagras atá iontu den chuid is mó.

Cuimsíonn sraith na hArd Fheise ábhar a bhaineann le hArd Fheis bhliantúil Chonradh na Gaeilge. Cuimsíonn sraith Sheachtain na Gaeilge ábhar a bhaineann le féile bhliantúil Ghaeilge an Chonartha a reáchtáiltear i mí an Mhárta. Áorítear leis an dá shraith seo miontuairiscí agus comhfhreagras, aithisc thosaigh, cláir agus ábhar poiblíochta.

Áirítear leis an tsraith Nua-Litríocht, Filíocht agus Scríbhneoirí dréachtscripteanna agus aistí, beathaisnéisí agus scéalta báis, míreanna a bhaineann le comórtais agus duaiseanna, cáipéisí a bhaineann le féilte agus seoltaí leabhar agus ábhar a bhaineann le hiriseoireacht na Gaeilge.

Áirítear leis an tsraith dheiridh san eisiúint seo, Ábhar a bhaineann le Ceol, Amhráin agus Rince bileoga ceoil ginearálta, bileoga ceoil an Oireachtais, cláir, grianghraif, póstaeir agus comhfhreagras. Áirítear leis na bileoga ceoil "Go Mairidh Ár nGaedhilg Slán", ar píosa é a cumadh go speisialta don chéad Oireachtas i mBaile Átha Cliath in 1897.

Díreach faoi bhun 70 bosca atá i gceist leis an eisiúint is deireacaí seo, agus fágann sé gur 240 líon na mboscaí atá eisithe chun dáta. Tá rochtain orthu seo agus ar aon ábhar eile, áfach, faoi réir ag na srianta reatha atá i bhfeidhm ag an rialtas, ar féidir léamh fúthu anseo.

Leanfar leis an obair ar an mbailiúchán iontach seo má ligeann srianta an rialtais dúinn déanamh amhlaidh agus tá súil againn nach mbeidh tréimhse ama chomh fada sin i gceist sula bhfógrófar go bhfuil ábhar eile le heisiúint. Tuilleadh eolas anseo ar a bhfuil ar fáil.

Idir an dá linn, fanaigí slán, fanaigí sábháilte agus beirigí bua,


English Version:

Naisc eile:

Fourth Tranche of Conradh na Gaeilge material released

2020 has been undoubtedly a strange and difficult year for everyone with the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic and the worldwide heartache and disruption it has caused. It will come as no surprise therefore to state that this has also unfortunately affected the ongoing work of processing the Conradh na Gaeilge collection. Access to the archives to continue the painstaking work of cataloging the collection was not possible for a 7 month period.

From August to October of this year, access was again thankfully possible and I am happy to report that the next tranche of material has now been released. This tranche comprises of five series: G60/3 Committees; G60/13 Ard Fheis; G60/15 Seachtain na Gaeilge; G60/19 Modern Irish Language Literature, Poetry and Writers and G60/21 Music, Song and Dance Material.

The Committees Series relates to the work of various committees and subcommittees of Conradh na Gaeilge including the National Executive; Finance committee; Children's committee; Festival committee; Fundraising committee; Education subcommittee; Gaeltacht subcommittee; Training subcommittee and the Broadcasting and Media subcommittees, and consists mainly of minutes and correspondence.

The Ard Fheis series covers material relating to Conradh na Gaeilge's annual congress. The Seachtain na Gaeilge series covers material relating to Conradh's Irish language festival which takes place annually in March. Both series include minutes, correspondence, opening  addresses, programmes and promotional material.


The Modern Irish language Literature, Poetry and Writers series includes draft scripts and essays, biographies and obituaries, items relating to competitions and awards, documents relating to book festivals and launches and material relating to Irish language journalism.

The final series in this release, Music, Song and Dance Material, includes general sheet music, Oireachtas sheet music, programmes, photographs, posters and correspondence.

This latest release comprises of just under 70 boxes of material and brings to 240 the total number of boxes released to date. Access to these and any other material is dependent on current government restrictions however, which can be viewed here.

Government restrictions permitting, the work processing this amazing collection continues and it is hoped that news of further releases will not be as long in coming! To see what is currently available, check the archives catalogue here.

In the meantime, stay safe and take care,

Friday, November 27, 2020

'Muintir na Tíre' - Researching Rural Communities and the Muintir Archive - Barry Sheppard


My ‘association’ with Muintir na Tíre goes back to early 2013. A long fascination with the workings of rural communities led me to undertake some research on the formation of the Ráthcairn Gaeltacht in Co Meath for a magazine article. That research took me on something of an unexpected journey from Meath to England and back.  An organisation of English agrarians named the Catholic Land Movement had kept a watchful eye on developments in Ráthcairn, believing that the blueprint for this engineered community of small farmers could be adopted in England to suit their rural utopian ambitions. 

            Their interest in Irish rural affairs was not limited to the embryonic Ráthcairn project, however.  Enamoured with the efforts of Canon Hayes and Muintir na Tíre in the area of rural community development, they viewed Muintir as an inspiration and kindred spirit. Examining many contemporary newspapers I discovered a speech by Catholic Land Movement leader Harold Robbins at a Muintir ‘Rural Week’ in 1938 which emphasised, as he saw it, the connections between the rural mission of his organisation and that of Muintir. Hailing ‘the genius of our common philosophy’, he argued that there were now widely scattered groups across the globe in an almost identical struggle against the excesses of industrial capitalism.[1] This one sentence brought forth so many questions, and ultimately changed the course of my academic research.  Firstly, who were these groups engaged in an identical struggle? What was the struggle? And what role did Muintir na Tíre play in it all?  This formed the basis of my MA thesis and subsequent PhD studies.

Completely new to Muintir, I was unsure where to go next. Several conversations with people in NUIG, particularly Dr Tony Varley provided some invaluable leads, for which I am still extremely grateful.  One of these conversations led me to Mr Tom Fitzgerald, Muintir na Tíre member and one-time secretary to the movement’s leader, John Hayes. Over the course of a long conversation with Mr Fitzgerald, in which we spoke about Canon Hayes, the origins of the movement and its place in Irish society, Tom told me about the Muintir archives which were at that time stored in the old gaol house in Tipperary town. I was kindly invited to come down and explore them and use what would be helpful in my research. 

At the time I knew so little of Muintir that I would not have known where to begin with such a resource, therefore I respectfully and temporarily declined. I was, however informed a couple of years later that the Hardiman Library had acquired the Muintir collection. I kept a keen eye on developments there.  The collection was now in the best hands and would be properly archived for researchers to explore. 

My opportunity to finally explore this fantastic resource came once I had been accepted onto the PhD programme in Queen’s University in 2018. Indeed, I believe it was the possibility of using this relatively untapped resource which helped in my application. My research proposal was to investigate the international relationships Muintir na Tíre developed under John Hayes.  The first trip to the newly archived Muintir collection came in February of 2019.  Upon consulting the online catalogue I became aware of one important thing. I was correct not to take up Tom Fitzgerald on his kind offer as I would have been completely lost in such an expansive collection.

The NUIG Muintir na Tíre collection is breath-taking. It is only in person that one can get a sense of just how extensive, and valuable this resource is. Helped, of course by the expert advice of the library archivists, my Muintir archive journey began with Canon Hayes himself.  Hayes’s section of the archive contains enough for a PhD publication on its own. Collections of papers, speeches and correspondences provide a fascinating insight into the man who founded the movement and show the international impact he made.  There is, however, much, much more. Financial records, minutes, correspondences, rural week materials, the Muintir Film and Credit societies, as well as plentiful files on other key Muintir figures provides a goldmine of information for current and future social and economic historians.  There are many potential PhD’s and publications to come from this impressive archive.

Even in our uncertain present, where access to archives is limited, there is much to explore.  The Hardiman library have digitised a wealth of Muintir publications such as the monthly Landmark newspaper and the annual Rural Ireland publication. These resources have personally proved invaluable in these lockdown months.  Articles on Muintir guilds and regional activities appear alongside works by international contributors, showing that while the organisation was primarily concerned with the welfare of rural Irish society, they kept members abreast of international affairs, ensuring they had an informed society with a keen eye on global rural developments.

The Muintir na Tíre archive at the Hardiman Library is hugely important and tells us much about Irish society in the twentieth century. One hopes that once a corner is turned and some semblance of normality returns, that the materials contained within can be used again to their full potential, which should keep researchers busy for years, if not decades to come.


[1] Irish Independent, 1 Sept. 1938.

Wednesday, August 5, 2020

A Galway Wedding - From the Archives

Wedding of Henrietta Kathleen Joyce

On 30 April, 1901 a wedding took place at the Roman Catholic church in Castlegar, three miles from the centre of Galway City. It would, perhaps, have been unusual for that church to see such a fashionable wedding party, accustomed as it was to the more restrained and plainer outfits of its parishioners, most from humbler or middle-class farming families. The bride on this occasion was Henrietta Kathleen Joyce, daughter of Pierce Joyce of Merview House. The eagle-eyed reader will spot that this photograph was taken in front of Merview/Mervue House, known to Galwegians in more recent times as Royal Tara China.

Kathleen was marrying a “neighbour’s child”: Thomas David Wilson-Lynch, of the Lynch family of Renmore House though at the time of his marriage he indicated he was living at Kilcornan House in Clarinbridge, the family home of his mother, Frances Redington.  Though he was the son of a family who had and still held a large landed estate, it is telling that Thomas recorded his profession as “local government inspector”, signalling the changing times that were then overtaking the landed gentry of County Galway. The witnesses to the marriage were Dr. Edward Stapleton and Lily O’Neill Power. Thomas and Kathleen had a daughter in 1906, baptised Catherine Anne Mary Wilson Lynch, afterwards known as Maureen, and in time she inherited the substantial archives of both the Wilson-Lynch and Redington estates. In the later 20th century she took the decision to deposit this archive in the James Hardiman Library where it is the collection known as LE6. The detailed list of its contents can be accessed on the Archives Catalogue at: http://archivesearch.library.nuigalway.ie/nuig/calmview/Record.aspx?src=CalmView.Catalog&id=LE6

The archive descriptive list illustrates the breath of content of the collection, covering themes such as estate administration, social and political life as well as personal correspondence.

 It is the largest of our landed estates collection and has provided the foundation for a number of studies including a monograph history of the Redington family of Clarinbridge by Joe Murphy (reprinted 2017 ) and articles by Geraldine Curtin (Galway Roots: journal of the Galway Family History Society, 1998) and Brigid Clesham (The Other Clare, 2001). In 2019 the archive was augmented by the addition of some photographs from the Redington family collection, including this splendid photo of a Galway wedding that took place 119 years ago.

Monday, July 27, 2020

Riders Upon Galloping Horses - The Galway Races from the Archive

Cover of programme, Galway Races, 1969
An evening at the Galway races over a century ago inspired the poet W.B. Yeats to write a poem especially to mark what he had experienced. Written at the home of his friend and collaborator, Lady Augusta Gregory, Coole Park, in county Galway in 1908, "At the Galway Races" sums up the spectacle, passion and revelry that the unique annual Galway race meeting brings. There is also a series of watercolour sketches by Jack.B Yeats which depict various scenes from the Galway Races, race meetings, horse and trade fairs in the West of Ireland dating from 1900 and which are on display in our Archives and Special Collections Reading Room.

At Galway Races
There where the course is,
Delight makes all of the one mind,
The riders upon the galloping horses,
The crowd that closes in behind:
. . . .
Its flesh being wild, and it again
Crying aloud as the racecourse is,

And we find hearteners among men
That ride upon horses."                                  

Within the archives of the Hardiman Library is a race card from the centennial meeting of the Galway Races. The 1969 meeting marked 'a century of racing at Ballybrit' and in particular, its centrepiece event, the Galway Plate. The programme includes a note on the history of the races written by Christy Townley, then Librarian of the Hardiman Library, U.C.G., as the University was then known. 

The runners and riders for the centennial plate race are listed - thirteen listed starters in all. The prize money is detailed and the distance noted as being "two miles and about five furlongs". The owner of the race-card lists the placed finishers with the winner of the 1969 Galway Plate being "Royal Day", owned by Mr. P. Dunne Cullinan and trained by P. Sleator. (there is no evidence that this racegoer had the winner backed!)

Entrants in Galway Plate, 1969
Also of note on the back cover of the programme is a tip for "an essential for Galway Week . . ." and being "a credit or deposit account with Tote Investors (Ireland) Ltd." Hopefully that 'credit account' did not grow too large. 

Wednesday, July 22, 2020

CFP New Journal Issue: 'Performing in Digital' - Archives and Education

Druid’s production of Anton Chekhov’s The Cherry Orchard, in a version by Tom Murphy, directed by Garry Hynes. 2020.

Call for Papers - Themed issue of RiDE: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance

Title: Performing in Digital

Key words: archives, performance, theatre, universities, memory, education

Guest Editors:
Dr. Barry Houlihan and Dr. Catherine Morris, NUI Galway

The global virus pandemic transformed lives tragically and accelerated the world into a digital co-existence at multiple heightened levels of interdependencies. In this new context that took Higher Education, Arts Institutions, educationalists, artists and cultural workers by surprise almost over-night, performing in digital became a new way of life. The boundaries of private spaces became blurred with public spaces of cultural production. Home spaces became points of public broadcast that were often at once live in the immediately intimacy of the local community while simultaneously being received globally. From March 2020, epic scenes of emotional turmoil were matched with instances of opera sung from balconies in Italy. Filmmakers, photographers, documentary makers and writers began communicating a collective art of living in lockdown. The inequalities of access to digital and indeed to home space and income became very apparent across the global spectrum. The concerns of the artist and teacher in the socially distant but technologically present era raises concerns for the meaning, production and distribution of culture within performance and education settings.

From performing in digital to existing in digital, current practice in theatre-making and education is increasingly presented and mediated through digital means. Documentation as the process of archiving now records an archive of society and theatre and performance practice in action. This is a multifaceted performance archive often born digital or re-animated through the digital. This in turn has reconfigured the learning process and engagement with the archive of performance in education and practice. The tensions between ‘live’ and ‘liveness’, ‘presence’ and ‘absence’ become porous within the digital archive and within this new dynamic learning and performance space. This Themed Issue will address the tensions produced within a theatre education context in which potential digital barriers and borders emerge in terms of access, curation, ownership, copyright and use in teaching.

We invite contributions that will respond to or question how digital theatre archives are utilized within a theatre education context and within applied theatre development. Recent scholarship addressing the uses of digital performance, the ethics of theatre historiography, as well as new media in/as dramaturgy provide a foundation in which to situate this themed issue.[1] The digital archive, while redefining the documentation of work and labour of current practitioners, repositions the training and educational possibilities of future theatre makers. We welcome contributions on any of the following topics from academics, theatre-makers, policy makers, curators, artists, cultural workers, archivists, specialist librarians and others who engage with archives of performance in education settings.

Sample topics and questions to address include:
  • Kinetic Archives – Teaching past performance through sound, vision, and embodied archival performance
  • Ownership, copyright and performance as art-work and education
  • Devising and the Archive: Ensemble collaboration in digital learning
  • Archives and the Curriculum – questioning the canon on issues of sexuality, exclusion, race, gender and minorities
  • Digital Performance and Digital Pedagogy: New learning interfaces
·         Capturing virtual & augmented reality and virtual classrooms within applied theatre learning spaces
  • How have digitized performance archives directly generated new forms of teaching and learning practice?
  • What are the challenges for digital archive partnerships between universities and theatres?

We gladly invite the following forms of submissions:

·         Research articles of between 6,000-8,000 words.
·         ‘Document Essays’ of between 3,000 and 5,000 words with curated photo-based material.
·         Recorded-media-based responses/provocations
·         Interviews with practitioners/artists/researchers also welcome

Potential contributors are required to submit an abstract of 500-700 words, along with a biography of maximum 250 words.

Please send any enquiries and abstracts to the editors:

Deadline for submissions of abstracts: 21 August 2020

Contributors will be notified by: 18 September 2020

Full papers will be required by: 26 January 2021

[1] Such publications include: Rob Roznowski, Transforming Actor Education in the Digital Age, Theatre Topics, 25.3 (2015); Sarah Bay-Cheng, Pixelated Memories: Performance, Media, and Digital Technology, Contemporary Theatre Review 27.3 (2017); Sarah Bay-Cheng, Digital Historiography and Performance, Theatre Journal 68.4 (2016); Claire Cochrane and Jo Robinson, eds., Theatre History and Historiography: Ethics, Evidence and Truth (2016); Peter Eckersall, Helena Grehan and Edward Scheer, New Media Dramaturgy: Performance, Media and New-Materialism (2017); D. Dean, Y. Meerzon, and K. Prince, eds., History, Memory, Performance (2015); and Toni Sant, ed., Documenting Performance: The Context and Processes of Digital Curation and Archiving (2017).